Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy. In contrast to conventional warfare, nuclear warfare can produce destruction in a much shorter time-frame and can have a long lasting radiological warfare dimension. A major nuclear exchange would have long-term effects, primarily from the fallout released, and could also lead to a "nuclear winter" that could last for decades, centuries, or even millennia after the initial attack.
Some activists had claimed in the 1980s that with this
potential nuclear winter side-effect of a nuclear war almost every human
on Earth could starve to death. However analysts, who dismiss the
nuclear winter hypothesis, calculate that with nuclear weapon stockpiles
at Cold War highs, in a surprise countervalue global nuclear war,
billions of casualties would have resulted in the nuclear holocaust with
billions of more rural people, nevertheless surviving.
two nuclear weapons have been used in the course of warfare, both by the
United States near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, a
uranium gun-type device (code name "Little Boy") was detonated over the
Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later, on August 9, a plutonium
implosion-type device (code name "Fat Man") was detonated over the
Japanese city of Nagasaki. These two bombings resulted in the deaths of
approximately 120,000 people.
After World War II, nuclear weapons
were also developed by the Soviet Union (1949), the United Kingdom
(1952), France (1960), and the People's Republic of China (1964), which
contributed to the state of conflict and extreme tension that became
known as the Cold War.
In 1974, India, and in 1998, Pakistan,
two countries that were openly hostile toward each other, developed
nuclear weapons. Israel (1960s) and North Korea (2006) are also thought
to have developed stocks of nuclear weapons, though it is not known how
many. The Israeli government has never admitted to having nuclear
weapons, although it is known to have constructed the reactor and
reprocessing plant necessary for building nuclear weapons.
Africa also manufactured several complete nuclear weapons in the 1980s,
but subsequently became the first country to voluntarily destroy their
domestically made weapons stocks and abandon further production (1990s).
Nuclear weapons have been detonated on over 2,000 occasions for testing
purposes and demonstrations.
After the collapse of the Soviet
Union in 1991 and the resultant end of the Cold War, the threat of a
major nuclear war between the two nuclear superpowers was generally
thought to have declined. Since then, concern over nuclear weapons has
shifted to the prevention of localized nuclear conflicts resulting from
nuclear proliferation, and the threat of nuclear terrorism.
possibility of using nuclear weapons in war is usually divided into two
subgroups, each with different effects and potentially fought with
different types of nuclear armaments.
The first, a limited
nuclear war (sometimes attack or exchange), refers to a small-scale use
of nuclear weapons by two (or more) belligerents. A "limited nuclear
war" could include targeting military facilities—either as an attempt to
pre-emptively cripple the enemy's ability to attack as a defensive
measure, or as a prelude to an invasion by conventional forces, as an
offensive measure. This term could apply to any small-scale use of
nuclear weapons that may involve military or civilian targets (or both).
The second, a full-scale nuclear war, could consist of large numbers of
nuclear weapons used in an attack aimed at an entire country, including
military, economic, and civilian targets. Such an attack would almost
certainly destroy the entire economic, social, and military
infrastructure of the target nation, and would probably have a
devastating effect on Earth's biosphere.
Monday, January 18, 2016
FOUR HORSEMEN is an award winning independent feature documentary which lifts the lid on how the world really works.
As the global economy continues to veer from crisis to catastrophe many more people are looking for wise counsel on how to reshape the Western Economy. Over the last three years 23 global thinkers many of whom have been marginalized -have come together to break their silence and explain how the world really works.
Their views transcend mainstream media and short-term political explanations to describe in simple terms what needs to be addressed in our universities, governments and corporate structures. We will not be returning to business as usual.
The lo-fi doc sheds light on the arcane information on economic practices. Illustrating its factors through simple however efficient diagrams, it proves precisely how easy it could be to comprehend how money functions and how scary it really is to discover that, apparently, 97 % of the amount of money on the planet is actually debt.
Featuring many first-time on camera interviews with leading Economist plus Nobel Memorial Prize winner Joseph Stiglitz, Brand new York’s Times bestselling writer of ‘Confessions of an Economic Hit-Man’, John Perkins a dozen financial specialists from the gold and silver coins industry and the Former Chief of Staff to US Secretary of State, director Ross Ashcroft uncovers the systemic, legalised corruption associated with governments plus the bank operating system allowing the wealthy to get wealthier as the majority of the planet lives within abject poverty – still waiting for the ‘trickle down’ economics to pan out as promised us years ago.
FOUR HORSEMEN is free from mainstream media propaganda — the film doesn’t bash bankers, criticise politicians or get involved in conspiracy theories. It ignites the debate about how to usher a new economic paradigm into the world which would dramatically improve the quality of life for billions.
Sunday, January 10, 2016
The Oromo people (Oromo: Oromoo; Ge'ez: ኦሮሞ; ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia, northern Kenya, and parts of Somalia. With around 25 million members, they constitute the single largest ethnicity in Ethiopia and the wider Horn of Africa, at approximately 35% of Ethiopia's population according to the 2007 census. Oromos speak the Oromo language as a mother tongue (also called Afaan Oromoo and Oromiffa), which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. The name was given as Ilm’ Orma ("Sons of Men" or an eponymous 'Orma') in the 19th century; the present form is probably an obsolete plural of the same word orma ("person, stranger").
Most Oromos do not have political unity today due to their historical roles in the Ethiopian state and the region, the spread out movement of different Oromo clans, and the differing religions inside the Oromo nation. Accordingly, Oromos played major roles in all three main political movements in Ethiopia (centralist, federalist and secessionist) during the 19th and 20th century. In addition to holding high powers during the centralist government and the monarchy, the Raya Oromos in Tigray played a major role in the revolt inside the Tigray regional state, known as "Weyane" revolt, challenging Emperor Haile Selassie I's rule in the 1940s. Simultaneously, both federalist and secessionist political forces developed inside the Oromo community.
Presently, a number of ethnic based political organizations have been formed to promote the interests of the Oromo. The first was the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Association founded in January 1963, but was disbanded by the government after several increasingly tense confrontations in November, 1966. Later groups include the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM), the United Liberation Forces of Oromia (ULFO), the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia (IFLO), the Oromia Liberation Council (OLC), the Oromo National Congress (ONC, recently changed to OPC) and others. Another group, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), is one of the four parties that form the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition. However, these Oromo groups do not act in unity: the ONC, for example, was part of the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces coalition that challenged the EPRDF in the Ethiopian general elections of 2005.
A number of these groups seek to create an independent Oromo nation, some using armed force. Meanwhile, the ruling OPDO and several opposition political parties in the Ethiopian parliament believe in the unity of the country which has 80 different ethnicities. But most Oromo opposition parties in Ethiopia condemn the economic and political inequalities in the country. Progress has been very slow with the Oromia International Bank just recently established in 2008 though Oromo owned Awash International Bank started early in the 1990s and with the first private Afaan Oromoo newspaper in Ethiopia, Jimma Times, also known as Yeroo, recently established. Though the Jimma Times – Yeroo newspaper has faced a lot of harassment and persecution from the Ethiopian government since its beginning. Abuse of Oromo media is widespread in Ethiopia and reflective of the general oppression Oromos face in the country. University departments in Ethiopia did not establish curriculum in Afaan Oromo until the late 1990s.
Various human rights organizations have publicized the government persecution of Oromos in Ethiopia for decades. In 2008, OFDM opposition party condemned the government's indirect role in the death of hundreds of Oromos in western Ethiopia. According to Amnesty International, "between 2011 and 2014, at least 5000 Oromos have been arrested based on their actual or suspected peaceful opposition to the government. These include thousands of peaceful protestors and hundreds of opposition political party members. The government anticipates a high level of opposition in Oromia, and signs of dissent are sought out and regularly, sometimes pre-emptively, suppressed. In numerous cases, actual or suspected dissenters have been detained without charge or trial, killed by security services during protests, arrests and in detention."
According to Amnesty international, there is a sweeping repression in Oromo region of Ethiopia. On December 12,the reputed German Paper Deutsche Welle reported violent protects in Oromo region of Ethiopia in which more 20 student were killed. According to the report, the students were protesting against the governments re-zoning plan named 'Addis Ababa Master Plan'.
Wednesday, February 04, 2015
Wednesday, January 21, 2015
Sunday, January 18, 2015
Oil price fall down as result to preasure Russian not to demise Petrodollar or it`s because some country already make an action diminish their dependence on the dollar as financial and geopolitical order ?
BRICS countries — Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, a bloc of the world’s five major emerging economies — have long sought to diminish their dependence on the dollar as a means of reshaping the world financial and geopolitical order. In the absence of a viable alternative, however, replacing it has proved difficult.
For its part, “China sees the dominance of the dollar in international trade transactions as a remnant of American global dominance, which they hope to overthrow in the years ahead,” said Michael Klare, a professor of peace and world security studies at Hampshire College. “This is a small step in that direction, to reduce the primacy of the dollar in international trade.”
Russian cut a landmark deal to build pipelines and sell natural gas to China for the next 30 years. This fills Russia’s coffers, but more important, not a dime will transacted in US dollars. This is a direct threat to the current petrodollar system, in which the majority of the energy trade is priced in US dollars and sold in dollars.
Along with China, Putin delivered another crushing blow to the US dollar with the New Development Bank, which will make large strategic investments in developing nations in Africa, Latin America, and Asia through a non-dollar international payment clearing system.